[1] Tanya Dewey and Jessica Ng, Bos Taurus aurochs, Animal Diversity Web, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Bos_taurus.html

[2] Stull CL, Payne MA, Berry SL, and Hullinger PJ, “Tail docking in dairy cattle,” University of California, Davis,
April 2004, https://vetext.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/sites/g/files/dgvnsk5616/files/local_resources/pdfs/pdfs_animal_welfare/tailDockingDairyWhitePaper.041304.pdf

[3] “When and How to Disbud Dairy Calves,” University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, http://afs.ca.uky.edu/content/dairy-when-and-how-disbud-dairy-calves

[4] G. Robert Hagevoort and J. Armando Garcia, “When Should Dairy Cows Be Inseminated?,” College of Agricultural,
Consumer and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, https://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_b/B117/welcome.html

[5] Lorriane M. Sordillo, “Factors affecting mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility,” Livestock
Production Science
, Volume 98, Issues 1–2, 2005, pages 89–99.

[6] F.J. Vokey, C.L. Guard, H.N. Erb, and D.M. Galton, “Effects of Alley and Stall Surfaces on Indices of Claw and Leg
Health in Dairy Cattle Housed in a Free-Stall Barn,” Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 84, Issue 12, December
2001, pages 2686–2699, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022030201747236#!

[7] “Dairy Goat Production,” College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension,
Pennsylvania State University, 2008, https://extension.psu.edu/dairy-goat-production

[8] “Artificial Insemination of Dairy Goats,” College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico
State University, https://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_d/D704/welcome.html

[9] Ivory Harlow, “Goat kid care: Horn removal,” FarmAndDairy.com, February 26, 2016, https://www.farmanddairy.com/top-stories/goat-kid-care-horn-removal/318033.html

[10] Jolene Berg, Peter Robinson, and Deborah Giraud, “Raising Dairy Goat Kids,” University of California, Division of
Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8160, https://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/8160.pdf

[11] “What are the animal welfare issues with dairy goat farming?,” https://kb.rspca.org.au/knowledge-base/what-are-the-animal-welfare-issues-with-dairy-goat-farming/

[12] Shannon Malloy, “Graphic hidden camera footage shows baby goats having their horn buds burnt off with hot irons,”
News.com.au, December 18, 2019, https://www.news.com.au/technology/science/animals/graphic-hidden-camera-footage-shows-baby-goats-having-their-horn-buds-burnt-off-with-hot-irons/news-story/142ea2688c247a5c4ee89a900da87616

[13] “Baby goats bludgeoned to death in horrific undercover footage on Victorian dairy farm,” 7News.com.au, October 24,
2019, https://7news.com.au/news/animals/baby-goats-bludgeoned-to-death-in-horrific-undercover-footage-on-victorian-dairy-farm-c-522181

[14] Georgina Gustin, “In California’s Methane-Reduction Crosshairs, Dairy Industry Faces Regulation for the First
Time,” InsideClimateNews.org, October 25, 2016, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/25102016/methane-gas-global-warming-climate-change-california-dairy-industry-regulation-first-time-jerry-brown/

[15] Stacey Kim, “California Dairy Farmers Are Saving Money—and Cutting Methane Emissions—by Feeding Cows Leftovers,”
InsideClimateNews.org, April 13, 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/13042021/california-dairy-farmers-are-saving-money-and-cutting-methane-emissions-by-feeding-cows-leftovers/

[16] Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9: Animal Waste: What’s the Problem?,

[17] Mark A. Lee, Allison Todd, Mark A. Sutton, et al., “A time-series of methane and carbon dioxide production from
dairy cows during a period of dietary transition,” Cogent Environmental Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, 2017, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23311843.2017.1385693

[18] Gowri Koneswaran and Danielle Nierenberg, “Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and
Mitigating Climate Change,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 116, Number 5, May 2008, pages 578–582.

[19] “Overview of Greenhouse Gases,” EPA, https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/overview-greenhouse-gases

[20] Amy Quinto, “Cows and Climate Change,” University of California—Davis, June 27, 2019, https://www.ucdavis.edu/food/news/making-cattle-more-sustainable

[21] “Overview of Greenhouse Gases,” EPA, https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/overview-greenhouse-gases

[22] Nina G. G. Domingo, Srinidhi Balasubramanian, et al., “Air quality-related health damages of food,” Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 118, Number 20, May 2021, https://www.pnas.org/content/118/20/e2013637118

[23] https://www.catf.us/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/CATF_Pub_TheTollFromCoal.pdf

[24] Maurice Eastridge, “Water Usage on Dairy Farms,” The Ohio State University, https://dairy.osu.edu/newsletter/buckeye-dairy-news/volume-8-issue-1/water-usage-dairy-farms

[25] Kate Good, “Milk Life? How about Milk Destruction: The Shocking Truth about the Dairy Industry and the
Environment,” OneGreenPlanet.org, https://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/the-dairy-industry-and-the-environment/

[26] “Dairy farmers must supply neighbors clean water,” King5.com, June 20, 2015, https://www.king5.com/article/news/local/dairy-farmers-must-supply-neighbors-clean-water/281-140305188

[27] Wendee Nicole, “CAFOs and Environmental Justice: The Case of North Carolina,” Environmental Health
, June 2013, Volume 121, Number 6, pages 182–189.

[28] “Air Quality Issues for Dairy Operations,” University of Massachusetts—Amherst, https://ag.umass.edu/crops-dairy-livestock-equine/fact-sheets/air-quality-issues-for-dairy-operations

[29] Paul Brown, Linda Cameron, Ricardo Cisneros, et al., “Latino and Non-Latino Perceptions of the Air Quality in
California’s San Joaquin Valley” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 13,
Number 12, 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5201383/

[30] ​​“Fresno joins ‘Unmask My City’ in effort to reduce asthma caused by Central Valley factors,”
YourCentralValley.com, March 13, 2019, https://www.yourcentralvalley.com/news/local-news/fresno-joins-unmask-my-city-in-effort-to-reduce-asthma-caused-by-central-valley-factors/

[31] Dave Rogers, “Strange noises turn out to be cows missing their calves,” The Daily News, October 23, 2013,

[32] Bindu Panikkar and Mary-Kate Barrett, “Precarious Essential Work, Immigrant Dairy Farmworkers, and Occupational
Health Experiences in Vermont,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18,
Issue 7, April 1, 2021, https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/7/3675

[33] Shelby Filangi, “Weld County dairy worker dies after falling into manure pit,” KRDO.com, April 9, 2021, https://krdo.com/news/2021/04/09/weld-county-dairy-worker-dies-after-falling-into-manure-pit/

[34] Jeff Murray, “Undocumented immigrant killed in Yates farm mishap,” StarGazette.com, November 11, 2014, https://www.stargazette.com/story/news/public-safety/2014/11/11/yates-farm-death/18845509/

[35] John Garlock, “Dairy farm worker dies after fall from minivan,” KTVO.com, September 29, 2015, https://ktvo.com/news/local/dairy-farm-equipment-operator-dies-after-fall-from-minivan

[36] Jason Kandel, “Worker Dies After Being Crushed by Cows at Ontario Dairy,” NBCLosAngeles.com, June 17, 2013, https://www.nbclosangeles.com/news/local/man-dies-after-being-crushed-cows-ontario-dairy/1971817/

[37] Dairy Injuries and Deaths 2003–2009, https://www.hcn.org/issues/41.15/dairy-injuries-and-deaths-2003-2009/DeathTable.pdf

[38] Leah Grout, Michael B. Baker, Nigel French, and Simon Hales, “A Review of Potential Public Health Impacts
Associated with the Global Dairy Sector,” GeoHealth, Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2020, https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2019GH000213

[39] Maria Perez, “Wisconsin’s dairy industry would collapse without the work of Latino immigrants — many of them
undocumented,” USA Today, November 21, 2019, https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2019/11/21/wisconsin-dairy-farms-rely-immigrant-workers-undocumented-laborers/4248901002/

[40] Carly Fox, Rebecca Fuentes, Fabiola Ortiz Valdez, Gretchen Purser, and Kathleen Sexsmith, Milked: Immigrant
Dairy Farmers in New York State
, Workers’ Center of Central New York and the Worker Justice Center of New York,
2017, https://milkedny.files.wordpress.com/2017/05/milked_053017.pdf

[41] R.M. Arrieta, “Hidden Horrors: California Dairy Workers Face Danger and Abuse,” Dollars & Sense, http://www.dollarsandsense.org/archives/2004/0904arrieta.html

[42] New Mexico’s Top 10 Agriculture Commodities, March 25, 2021, https://www.farmflavor.com/new-mexico/new-mexico-crops-livestock/new-mexicos-top-agriculture-commodities/

[43] Joseph Sorrentino, “The One Thing Worse Than Big Dairy’s Abuse of Cows? Its Abuse of Workers,” InTheseTimes.com,
December 2014, https://inthesetimes.com/article/big-dairy-work-an-udderly-bad-job

[44] Juliet Larkin-Gilmore, “Cows on the Colorado: The History of Dairy Colonialism and Mohave Health,”
Environmental History Now, March 6, 2020, https://envhistnow.com/2020/03/06/cows-on-the-colorado-the-history-of-dairy-colonialism-and-mohave-health/

[45] Juliet Larkin-Gilmore, “Cows on the Colorado: The History of Dairy Colonialism and Mohave Health,”
Environmental History Now, March 6, 2020, https://envhistnow.com/2020/03/06/cows-on-the-colorado-the-history-of-dairy-colonialism-and-mohave-health/

[46] Rebecca Earle, The Body of the Conquistador: Food, Race and the Colonial Experience in Spanish
1700 (Cambridge University Press), 2012, page 3.

[47] Charles C. Mann, 1493: Uncovering the World Columbus Created (Vintage Books), 2012, page 11.

[48] “Lactose Intolerance,” Important Information for You and Your Family, National Institute of Diabetes and
Digestive and Kidney Diseases/National Institutes of Health, NIH publication 91-9751, February 1991.

[49] Greta Gaard, Critical Ecofeminism (Lexington Books), 2017, page 62.

[50] Andrea Freeman, “Unmothering Black Women: Formula Feeding as an Incident of Slavery,” Hastings Law
, Volume 69, Issue 6, August 2018, pages 1544–1606, https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3831&context=hastings_law_journal